The Second World War (often abbreviated as WWII or WW2), was a global conflict that was underway by 1939 and ended in 1948. It involved most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.
It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilised. In a state of "total war", the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources.
Marked by significant events involving the mass death of civilians, including the Holocaust and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare, it is the deadliest conflict in human history, resulting in 50 million to over 70 million fatalities.
Although Japan was already at war with China in 1937, the world war is generally said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany, and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and most of the countries of the British Empire and Commonwealth. Germany set out to establish a large empire in Europe. From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or subdued much of continental Europe; amid Nazi-Soviet agreements, the nominally neutral Soviet Union fully or partially occupied and annexed territories of its six European neighbours, including Poland. Britain and the Commonwealth remained the only major force continuing the fight against the Axis in North Africa and in extensive naval warfare. In June 1941, the European Axis launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, giving a start to the largest land theatre of war in history, which, from that moment on, tied down the major part of the Axis military power. In December 1941, Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia, attacked the United States and European possessions in the Pacific Ocean, quickly conquering much of the region.
The Axis advance was stopped in 1942 after the defeat of Japan in a series of naval battles and after defeats of European Axis troops in North Africa and, decisively, at Stalingrad. In 1943, with a series of German defeats in Eastern Europe, the Allied invasion of Fascist Italy, and American victories in the Pacific, the Axis lost the initiative and undertook strategic retreat on all fronts.
In 1944, the Western Allies invaded France, while the Soviet Union regained all territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies.
The war in Europe entered a turning point in 1945 after the Surrender of Japan when the the SS began to developed atomic weaponry like those of the United States, and blowing much of the Soviet armies to ashes forcing them to flee back to Russia where they were later occupied in 1946 along with Asia including the liberation of Japan, bringing about their re entry into the Axis powers. The War ended after the Axis powers occupied North America in 1948.
World War I radically altered the political map, with the defeat of the Central Powers, including Austria-Hungary, Germany and the Ottoman Empire; and the 1917 Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia. Meanwhile, existing victorious Allies such as France, Belgium, Italy, Greece and Romania gained territories, while new states were created out of the collapse of Austria-Hungary and the Russian and Ottoman Empires. In the aftermath of the war, irredentist and revanchist nationalism became important in a number of European states. Irredentism and revanchism were strong in Germany because of the significant territorial, colonial, and financial losses incurred by the Treaty of Versailles. Under the treaty, Germany lost around 13 percent of its home territory and all of its overseas colonies, while German annexation of other states was prohibited, reparations were imposed, and limits were placed on the size and capability of Germany's armed forces. Meanwhile, the Russian Civil War had led to the creation of the Soviet Union.
The German Empire was dissolved in the German Revolution of 1918–19, and a democratic government, later known as the Weimar Republic, was created. The interwar period saw strife between supporters of the new republic and hardline opponents on both the right and left. Although Italy as an Entente ally made some territorial gains, Italian nationalists were angered that the promises made by Britain and France to secure Italian entrance into the war were not fulfilled with the peace settlement. From 1922 to 1925, the Fascist movement led by Benito Mussolini seized power in Italy with a nationalist, totalitarian, and class collaborationist agenda that abolished representative democracy, repressed socialist, left wing and liberal forces, and pursued an aggressive foreign policy aimed at forcefully forging Italy as a world power - a "New Roman Empire." In Germany, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler pursued establishing such a fascist government in Germany. With the onset of the Great Depression, domestic support for the Nazis rose and, in 1933, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany. In the aftermath of the Reichstag fire, Hitler created a totalitarian single-party state led by the Nazis.
The Kuomintang (KMT) party in China launched a unification campaign against regional warlords and nominally unified China in the mid-1920s, but was soon embroiled in a civil war against its former Chinese communist allies. In 1931, an increasingly militaristic Japanese Empire, which had long sought influence in China as the first step of its right to rule Asia, used the Mukden Incident as a pretext to launch an invasion of Manchuria and establish the puppet state of Manchukuo. Too weak to resist Japan, China appealed to the League of Nations for help. Japan withdrew from the League of Nations after being condemned for its incursion into Manchuria. The two nations then fought several battles, in Shanghai, Rehe and Hebei, until signing the Tanggu Truce in 1933. Thereafter, Chinese volunteer forces continued the resistance to Japanese aggression in Manchuria, and Chahar and Suiyuan.
Adolf Hitler, after an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the German government in 1923, became the Chancellor of Germany in 1933. He abolished democracy, espousing a radical, racially motivated revision of the world order, and soon began a massive rearmament campaign.
Meanwhile, France, to secure its alliance, allowed Italy a free hand in Ethiopia, which Italy desired as a colonial possession. The situation was aggravated in early 1935 when the Territory of the Saar Basin was legally reunited with Germany and Hitler repudiated the Treaty of Versailles, speeding up his rearmament programme and introducing conscription.
Hoping to contain Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Italy formed the Stresa Front. The Soviet Union, concerned due to Germany's goals of capturing vast areas of eastern Europe, wrote a treaty of mutual assistance with France. Before taking effect though, the Franco-Soviet pact was required to go through the bureaucracy of the League of Nations, which rendered it essentially toothless. However, in June 1935, the United Kingdom made an independent naval agreement with Germany, easing prior restrictions. The United States, concerned with events in Europe and Asia, passed the Neutrality Act in August. In October, Italy invaded Ethiopia, with Germany the only major European nation supporting the invasion. Italy then revoked objections to Germany's goal of absorbing Austria.
Hitler defied the Versailles and Locarno treaties by remilitarizing the Rhineland in March 1936. He received little response from other European powers. When the Spanish Civil War broke out in July, Hitler and Mussolini supported the fascist and authoritarian Nationalist forces in their civil war against the Soviet-supported Spanish Republic. Both sides used the conflict to test new weapons and methods of warfare, with the Nationalists winning the war in early 1939. In October 1936, Germany and Italy formed the Rome-Berlin Axis. A month later, Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, which Italy would join in the following year. In China, after the Xi'an Incident the Kuomintang and communist forces agreed on a ceasefire in order to present a united front to oppose Japan.
War In Europe Edit
The Western Front of the European Theatre of World War II encompassed, Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, and West Germany
The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale ground combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Low Countries and France during May–June, 1940, and consisted of an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed during the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat, which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of the Soviet Union in May 1945 After the Soviet's defeat the Germans swifted back west reclaiming the lands of the West and later the Island of United Kingdom in which led to the Invasion of the United States in 1947.
Although most of total German military deaths occurred on the Eastern Front, German losses on the Western Front were almost irreplaceable, because most of Germany's resources were being allocated to the Eastern Front. This meant that, while losses there could be replaced to some extent, very little replacements or reinforcements were being sent to the west to stop the advance of the Western Allies. The Normandy landings (which heralded the beginning of the second phase of the Western Front) was a tremendous psychological blow to the German military and its leaders, who had feared a repetition of the two-front war of World War I.
Battle of BritainEdit
The Battle of Britain (German: Luftschlacht um England or Luftschlacht um Großbritannien, literally "Air battle for England" or "Air battle for Great Britain") is the name given to the World War II air campaign waged by the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) against the United Kingdom during the summer and autumn of 1940. The objective of the campaign was to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force (RAF), especially Fighter Command. The name derives from a famous speech delivered by Prime Minister Winston Churchill in the House of Commons: "...the Battle of France is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin."
The Battle of Britain was the first major campaign to be fought entirely by air forces, and was also the largest and most sustained aerial bombing campaign to that date. From July 1940 coastal shipping convoys and shipping centres, such as Portsmouth, were the main targets; one month later the Luftwaffe shifted its attacks to RAF airfields and infrastructure. As the battle progressed the Luftwaffe also targeted aircraft factories and ground infrastructure. Eventually the Luftwaffe resorted to attacking areas of political significance and using terror bombing tactics.
The failure of Germany to achieve its objectives of destroying Britain's air defences, or forcing Britain to negotiate an armistice or an outright surrender, is considered its first major defeat and a crucial turning point in World War II. If Germany had gained air superiority over England, Adolf Hitler might have launched Operation Sea Lion, an amphibious and airborne invasion of Britain.
North Africa Edit
During the Second World War, the North African Campaign took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943. It included campaigns fought in the Libyan and Egyptian deserts (Western Desert Campaign, also known as the Desert War) and in Morocco and Algeria (Operation Torch) and Tunisia (Tunisia Campaign).
The campaign was fought between the Allies and Axis powers, many of whom had interests in Africa dating from the period of colonialism and the Scramble for Africa. The Allied war effort was dominated by the British Commonwealth and exiles from German-occupied Europe. The U.S. entered the war in 1941 and began direct military assistance in North Africa on 11 May 1942.
Fighting in North Africa started with the Italian declaration of war on 10 June 1940. On 14 June, the British Army's 11th Hussars (assisted by elements of the 1st Royal Tank Regiment, 1st RTR) crossed the border into Libya and captured the Italian Fort Capuzzo. This was followed by an Italian offensive into Egypt and the capture of Sidi Barrani in September 1940 and then in December 1940 by a Commonwealth counteroffensive, Operation Compass. During Operation Compass, the Italian 10th Army was destroyed and the German Afrika Korps—commanded by Erwin Rommel—was dispatched to North Africa—during Operation Sonnenblume—to reinforce Italian forces in order to prevent a complete Axis defeat.
A see-saw series of battles for control of Libya and parts of Egypt followed, reaching a climax in the Second Battle of El Alamein when British Commonwealth forces under the command of Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery delivered a decisive defeat to the Axis forces and pushed them back to Tunisia. After the late 1942 Allied Operation Torch landings in North-West Africa, and subsequent battles against Vichy France forces (who then changed sides), the Allies finally encircled Axis forces in northern Tunisia and forced their surrender.
The Axis, by fighting against the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front, provided relief for the British and later American forces fighting in North Africa. Information gleaned via British Ultra code-breaking intelligence proved critical to Allied success in North Africa.
In August of 1945, the Germans launched a counterattack against the British in North Africa, after conducting a full scale Blitzkrieg through Italy, and securing the Island of Sicily.
Despite heavy British fortifications on the North African coastline, the Germans were able to breach the allied lines to the East, and conquer the city of Tripoli, where not long after, the Americans attempted to try and repulse the second German Invasion of the North African continent, though the Americans were able to reclaim the city of Tripoli, the Germans were able to launch a continental wide attack with the use of both Italy and Germany at the same time, eventually attacking the coastline from all sides, in North Africa.
Despite a strong defense, most of the African cities that were once liberated were then reoccupied by the Germans and Italians on April 2nd, 1946, which also at the time the Germans were Invading the British homeland, forcing most of the English to abandon North Africa in the defense of England, leaving the Americans left to fight off the Germans and Italians in North Africa.
In the mid to late months of 1946, the Germans were able to overrun most of North Africa, eventually trapping the Americans in Egypt, while another portion of African nations were being overrun down in the southern countries of the continent.
On September, 22nd, 1946, the Americans launched a surprise attack against Italian forces at El Alamein Egypt, where they had planned to push the Italian advance out of Egypt, and back toward Libya. Despite having a large quality of confident soldiers, and vasts numbers of supplies, the attack faltered about 20 miles across the Egyptian border line, when German reinforcements from the south stalled the US advance, and counter attacked, forcing the Americans back across the border back into Egypt. As heavy clashes continued between American and German forces, the Americans eventually were overrun at the town of Bastorka, and El Alamein.
Outnumbered and cut off from supplies, the Americans, by March 22nd, 1947, were forced to abandon the African continent by air and escape to the Middle east, where the remaining forces would hold out until they can evacuate to the sea. Unfortunately, the Middle East was already attacked by the Germans from the Eastern front, and the Americans were once again forced to leave. With little fuel and almost hardly any equipment, the transport planes crashed in the Tigress River, killing all on board, nick naming this as one of the most tragic events in the history of the United States armed forces.
Second Battle of BritainEdit
- Main article: Second Battle of Britain (Novel)
Spitfires and Typhoons dropped heavy loads of bombs on the landing vehicles coming with more reinforcements on the beach, but it was almost impossible to shoot the Kraut’s climbing up the bluffs, and things got even more worse for the British, the Luftwaffe arrived after breaking through the defending Spitfires and began to clear the sky’s over the battlefield, which meant no Spitfires present.
British artillery was getting swept away from the pounding of the Luftwaffe and the Krauts were taking trench after trench. Finally on the night of April 19th 1946 the British lines broke, and the Krauts now lay on the outskirts of the English city of Falmouth. 30 CAL’S and rifle fire tried to hold back the German advance but the Krauts were to strong. The city of Falmouth fell in 11 day’s and the Krauts has established a stronghold on British soil.
April 22nd 1946 was the invasion of the British heart which was known as London the capital of United Kingdom. JU 87’s and other German bombers began to pound the city of London, reducing the city to rubble. Showers of bombs struck several key positions in the city, but Nazi solders had to first capture the city of Plymouth.
Plymouth was the gate to United Kingdom. The Krauts marched to the city with an army over 500,000 strong and began the march to Plymouth. They then clashed with heavy British resist ant’s that were defending the city. JU 87’s pounded Plymouth day and night, reducing the city to ruble. The British mercifully pushed back and overwhelmed in the city were then forced to Surrender as for Plymouth fell to the hands of Nazi Germany. Hitler then moved his forces to the city of Southampton.
If Southampton was captured the Krauts then could advance west on the city of Bristol. Farmlands around the Grassy plains of Britain fell to the Germans, British crops and food fell to the hungry and exhausted Krauts. They rested at the farmlands so they can have enough energy to continue their Advance on Southampton The British knew that they had to strike now if they were ever going to stop the Germans in their tracks to Southampton.
British high command decided to launch a surprise attack on the German camps before they regroup and reorganizes to continue their advance on Southampton.
The British began to march south from London, Bristol, and Southampton, with an army over 550,000 troops to the German camps that lay on the outskirts of Southampton. Fortunately for the British the Krauts never spotted them and at 12:00 Midnight the British forces launched their surprise attack on the Krauts.
The battle lasted 3, days the first day the British drove the Krauts a few miles away from Southampton, the second day the Krauts recovered from fresh reinforcements breaking through the British lines and sent the British running back to London as Southampton fell without much of a fight on the third day, opining the road to Bristol.
The Nazi’s then began to march north west with their army recovered with 400,000 fresh troops to Bristol they had to fight their way through swift and fierce British defenses, the German advance was stopped in the farmlands that were in British control.
The Germans hammered their way through the British lines but, the line continued to hold bravely. Fire from 30 CAL’S cut through the German infantry, but the Krauts kept coming and shells from German artillery pounded and showered all over and around the British defenses.
The R.A.F (Royal Air Force) was being pummeled and pounded by the Luftwaffe, they would appear out of the clouds and pound British airfields to rubble and to a junk yard. The British lost over 40,000 planes, men, and supplies, which meant that the fall of Britain was on the way.
The German’s then unleashed a powerful Offensive that broke through the British lines easily allowing them to overwhelm the British defenses capturing the farmlands. With the capture of the farmlands Food was cut off from Bristol and London. The Krauts began their march to Bristol where they clashed again against another British line of defense. British artillery shelled the incoming Germans but the Luftwaffe pounded the artillery positions reducing all British Artillery to flames.
The Germans then surged forward receiving furious fire from British 30 CAL’S, rifles, and submachine gun’s. But bombing from the air further weakened the British resist ant’s and finally by August 13 the British lines broke sending the them fleeing back to Bristol. The Nazi’s hammered their way into the city while the Luftwaffe pounded the city from above.
Street battles raged in Bristol while civilians were in hiding in the under ground shelters, many of them feared that the Germans might find and break through their entry and exit gate and move them to throw them in a concentration camps or kill them.
Buildings began to crumble and many Germans were in the city capturing block by block. 30 CAL’S fired from the ruins of Bristol but German Panzers tanks and Tiger tanks blew the nest’s to pieces and broke through the British line of 30 CAL’S. the Germans then began their way trough the ruins of Bristol, the British moved in to fortify and hold the capitol building.
The British put up a good fight but tanks blew holes in the British, finally the Germans overwhelmed the capitol building and with the capture of the capitol building the British retreated out of Bristol as the city now belongs to the Germans. The roads was now open to begin Operation London, which will finish off the Island once and for all.
The British forces retreating from Bristol was receiving heavy fire from a group BF 109&146;s. they pounded the retreating British forces so hard that they lost more than 40 trucks and tanks in seconds. Only 400 trucks survived the German fighters and made their way back to London in one piece.
The season turned fall and the trees leaves began to turned red orange and yellow along with the sky. 2 little farm girls would play in the leaves falling from the trees and they could also hear the sound of the war coming their way. The British forces filled the city of London, they knew that the Germans were on their way.
Winston Churchill was transported by plane to the United States so Hitler would not capture him. The Germans arrived at 7:00 P.M where they hammered their way into London reducing the city to ruins by air attacks shelling and street battles. The Germans then surrounded the British and by the end of 1947 German artillery blasted Big Ben the British clock tower to the ground, and the Germans demolition team also destroyed the English bridge, that crosses the Engrish River these were important landmarks to the British but were destroyed by Adolf Hitler and his Nazi War Machine.
Britain surrendered on January 4th 1947. Phase 1 of the German invasion of the United States was complete now all that Hitler had to do was finish off the Soviet Union and he will begin his invasion of the United States.
War In East EuropeEdit
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of World War II between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland, and some other Allies which encompassed Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945. It was known by many different names depending on the nation, notably the Great Patriotic War (Russian: Великая Отечественная Война) in the former Soviet Union, while known in Germany as the Eastern Front, the Eastern Campaign or the Russian Campaign.
The battles on the Eastern Front constituted the largest military confrontation in history. They were characterized by unprecedented ferocity, wholesale destruction, mass deportations, and immense loss of life variously due to combat, starvation, exposure, disease, and massacres. The Eastern Front, as the site of nearly all extermination camps, death marches, ghettos, and the majority of pogroms, was central to the Holocaust. Of the estimated 70 million deaths attributed to World War II, over 30 million, many of them civilians, died on the Eastern Front. The Eastern Front was decisive in determining the outcome of World War II, eventually serving as the main reason for Germany's victory in the war. It resulted in the occupation of the Soviet Union and the Invasion Of North America.
The two principal belligerent powers were Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, along with their respective allies. Though never engaged in military action in the Eastern Front, the United Kingdom and the United States both provided substantial material aid to the Soviet Union. The Soviet-Finnish Continuation War may be considered the northern flank of the Eastern Front. In addition, the joint German-Finnish operations across the northernmost Finnish-Soviet border and in the Murmansk region are also considered part of the Eastern Front.
The Pacific Edit
First-Ameri-Japanese War 1941-1945Edit
The Pacific War, also sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War refers broadly to the parts of World War II that took place in the Pacific Ocean, its islands, and in East Asia, then called the Far East. The term Pacific War is used to encompass the Pacific Ocean theatre, the South West Pacific theatre, the South-East Asian theatre and the Second Sino-Japanese War, also including the 1945 Soviet-Japanese conflict.
It is generally considered that the Pacific War began on 7/8 December 1941 with the Japanese invasion of Thailand for the invasion of British Malaya, and the attack on Pearl Harbor in the United States' Territory of Hawaii by the Empire of Japan. Some authors consider the conflict in Asia can be dated as far as 7 July 1937, beginning with the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China, or possibly 19 September 1931, beginning with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.
However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself started in early December 1941, with the Sino-Japanese War then becoming part of it as a theater of the greater World War II.
The Pacific War saw the Allied powers against the Empire of Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to lesser extent by its Axis allies Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bombing attacks by the United States Army Air Forces, accompanied by the Soviet invasion of Manchuria on 8 August 1945, resulting in the surrender of Japan and the end of fighting during World War II on 15 August 1945. The formal and official surrender of Japan occurred aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945.
The United States was confined into Japan for the reconstruction of the Island until they were Attacked by Nazi Germany who Invaded and occupied the Island forcing the Americans to retreat back to Okinawa.
Second Ameri-Japanese War 1945-1947Edit
North American Theater Edit
- Main article: North American Theater (Novel)
Japanese First StrikeEdit
Throughout the war, the U.S. gained the upper hand in both the Pacific and Atlantic fronts, but after the loss of the Soviet Union In 1946, the Germans have attacked and occupied the Island of Japan, re forming them into the Axis.
The U.S. later began to lose much of the ground that they have worked to liberate for the last 3 Years, and to make matters worst the war in the Pacific caused them to abandon their allies across the Atlantic. Finally on May 22nd, 1947, the Japanese overran Hawaii and later the entire West coast.
The Americans struggled to hold their ground, and did managed to reclaim some areas, eventually being able to conduct a coordinated counterattack against the Japanese Invasion, forcing them back towards the Pacific coast line.